waterfall n : a steep descent of the water of a river [syn: falls]
permanent flow of water over the edge of a cliff
- Croatian: vodopad
- Czech: vodopád
- Danish: vandfald
- Dutch: waterval
- Estonian: kosk, juga
- Finnish: vesiputous
- French: cascade, chute d'eau
- Galician: fervenza cadoiro cachoeira
- German: Wasserfall (common), Katarakt
- Hungarian: vízesés
- Icelandic: foss
- Italian: cascata
- Japanese: 滝 (taki)
- Norwegian: foss
- Old Norse: fors
- Persian: آبشار
- Polish: wodospad
- Portuguese: cachoeira , queda-d'água
- Russian: водопад (vodopád)
- Spanish: catarata, cascada
- Swedish: vattenfall
- Welsh: rhaeadr, pistyll, sgwd
- ttbc Bosnian: vodopad
- ttbc Chinese: 瀑布 (pùbù)
- ttbc Esperanto: akvofalo
- ttbc Ido: kaskado, aquofalo
- ttbc Indonesian: air terjun
- ttbc Malayalam: വെള്ളച്ചാട്ടം (veLLacchaattam)
- ttbc Maltese: nixxiegħa
- ttbc Serbian:
- Cyrillic: водопад
- Latin: vodopad
- Cyrillic: водопад
- ttbc Tamil: நீர்வீழ்ச்சி (neerveelchi)
- ttbc Telugu: జలపాతం (jalapaataM)
- To fall like a waterfall.
- [http://www.worldwaterfalls.com?refer=wiktionary_waterfall/ WorldWaterfalls.com - Stock Waterfall Photographs, Waterfall Information, Waterfall Forum]
Typically, a river flows over a large step in the rocks which may have been formed by a fault line. Over a period of years, the edges of this shelf will gradually break away and the waterfall will steadily retreat upstream, creating a gorge of recession. Often, the rock stratum just below the more resistant shelf will be of a softer type, meaning undercutting, due to splashback, will occur here to form a shallow cave-like formation known as a rock shelter or plunge pool under and behind the waterfall. Eventually, the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall. These blocks of rock are then broken down into smaller boulders by attrition as they collide with each other, and they also erode the base of the waterfall by abrasion, creating a deep plunge pool or gorge.
Streams become wider and more shallow just above waterfalls due to flowing over the rock shelf, and there is usually a deep pool just below the waterfall because of the kinetic energy of the water hitting the bottom.
Waterfalls can occur along the edge of glacial trough, whereby a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon. The rivers are flowing from hanging valleys.
Classifying WaterfallsWaterfalls are grouped into 10 broad classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Niagara Falls, Paulo Alfonso Falls and Khone Falls. Classes of other well known waterfalls include; Victoria Falls and Kaieteur Falls (Class 9); Rhine Falls, Gullfoss and Sutherland Falls (Class 8); Angel Falls and Dettifoss (Class 7); Yosemite Falls and Lower Yellowstone Falls (Class 6).
Types of waterfalls
- Block: Water descends from a relatively wide stream or river.
- Cascade: Water descends a series of rock steps.
- Cataract: A large waterfall.
- Fan: Water spreads horizontally as it descends while remaining in contact with bedrock.
- Horsetail: Descending water maintains some contact with bedrock.
- Plunge: Water descends vertically, losing contact with the bedrock surface.
- Punchbowl: Water descends in a constricted form, then spreads out in a wider pool.
- Segmented: Distinctly separate flows of water form as it descends.
- Tiered:Water drops in a series of distinct steps or falls.
- Multi-step: A series of waterfalls one after another of roughly the same size each with its own sunken plunge pool.
Examples of large waterfalls
- main List of waterfalls
- Angel Falls, the world's highest at 979 metres (3212 feet), in Venezuela
- Bridalveil Fall, California - 189 m (620 ft) high: sheer drop when flowing
- Cascata delle Marmore in Italy is the tallest man-made waterfall in the world
- Cautley Spout at 175 m (580 ft) is the highest waterfall in England
- Eas a' Chual Aluinn at 200 m (658 ft) is the highest waterfall in Scotland and also the United Kingdom
- Gocta, the fifth-highest in the world at 771 m (2533 ft), located in the province Chachapoyas, Peru
- Kaieteur Falls, (Potaro River in central Guyana) located in the Kaieteur National Park, a region that is also claimed by Venezuela. It is 226 m (741 ft)
- High Force on the River Tees is one of the tallest waterfalls in England
- Huangguoshu Waterfall in Anshun, Guizhou, China, the largest waterfall in Asia.
- Iguazu Falls, a tall and extremely wide fall located in South America on the Argentina/Brazil border
- Jog Falls, India's eighth-highest (listed as 313 ranking on the World Waterfall Database), located in Karnataka state, India
- Jurong Falls in Singapore is the tallest artificial waterfall in Asia
- Multnomah Falls: high 30ft wide
- Niagara Falls is the most powerful falls in North America
- Ramnefjellsfossen, the world's third-highest at 808 m (2685 ft), at Stryn, Nesdalen, Norway
- Rhine Falls, Europe's largest, located in Switzerland
- Tugela Falls, the world's second-highest at 947 m (3110 ft), in KwaZulu-Natal province, Republic of South Africa
- Victoria Falls, the largest waterfall in the world, over a mile long and located on the Zambezi river on the border of Zimbabwe and Zambia.
- Yosemite Falls, arguably the tallest in North America, located in Yosemite National Park, United States
- Yumbilla falls, worlds 5th tallest waterfall, located in Peru
- Krimmler Falls, Europe's tallest waterfalls, height: 390 m, located in Krimml, Salzburg, Austria
- ShirAbad Waterfall, Iran, Golestan,Khanbebin,shirabad
waterfall in Arabic: شلال
waterfall in Min Nan: Chúi-chhiâng
waterfall in Bulgarian: Водопад
waterfall in Catalan: Cascada
waterfall in Czech: Vodopád
waterfall in Welsh: Rhaeadr
waterfall in Danish: Vandfald
waterfall in German: Wasserfall
waterfall in Estonian: Juga
waterfall in Modern Greek (1453-): Καταρράκτης
waterfall in Spanish: Cascada
waterfall in Esperanto: Akvofalo
waterfall in Basque: Ur-jauzi
waterfall in Persian: آبشار
waterfall in French: Chute d'eau
waterfall in Scottish Gaelic: Eas
waterfall in Galician: Fervenza
waterfall in Gujarati: ધોધ
waterfall in Korean: 폭포
waterfall in Hindi: झरना
waterfall in Indonesian: Air terjun
waterfall in Inuktitut: ᖁᖅᓗᕐᓂᖅ/quqlurniq
waterfall in Icelandic: Foss
waterfall in Italian: Cascata
waterfall in Hebrew: מפל מים
waterfall in Latin: Aqua cadens
waterfall in Lithuanian: Krioklys
waterfall in Dutch: Waterval
waterfall in Japanese: 滝
waterfall in Norwegian: Foss
waterfall in Norwegian Nynorsk: Foss
waterfall in Polish: Wodospad
waterfall in Portuguese: Queda de água
waterfall in Romanian: Cascadă
waterfall in Quechua: Phaqcha
waterfall in Russian: Водопад
waterfall in Simple English: Waterfall
waterfall in Slovak: Vodopád
waterfall in Slovenian: Slap
waterfall in Serbian: Водопад
waterfall in Sundanese: Curug
waterfall in Finnish: Vesiputous
waterfall in Swedish: Vattenfall
waterfall in Tamil: அருவி
waterfall in Thai: น้ำตก
waterfall in Vietnamese: Thác
waterfall in Cherokee: ᎠᎹᏍᎧᎦᎯ
waterfall in Turkish: Şelâle
waterfall in Ukrainian: Водоспад
waterfall in Urdu: آبشار
waterfall in Chinese: 瀑布
Niagara, cascade, cataract, chute, collapse, comedown, crash, debacle, declension, declination, defluxion, descending, descension, descent, down, downbend, downcome, downcurve, downfall, downflow, downgrade, downpour, downrush, downtrend, downturn, downward trend, drop, dropping, eddy, fall, falling, falls, force, gravitation, inclination, linn, nappe, plummeting, pounce, rapids, riffle, sault, shoot, spout, stoop, surge, swoop, vortex, watershoot, whirlpool